The Classical Tradition in Art
Michael Greenhalgh


originally published London, 1978
Read this note on the OCR setup

Introduction: What is Classicism?

Classicism in practice: the Stanza della Segnatura 15

1 Classicism from the Fall of Rome to Nicola Pisano: Survival and Revival 19

Pagan into Christian 19
Survival and revival 20
The Carolingian Renaissance 24
The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century 29

2 Antique Art and the Renaissance: a Gallery of Types 35

3 Roma Quanta Fuit, Ipsa Ruina Docet 45

The idea of Rome in the Middle Ages 45
Attitudes to the monuments during the Middle Ages 46
Rome after the return of the Popes from Avignon 50
Scholarly study of the antiquities of Rome 51
The collecting of antiquities 53
The use of antiquities by artists 55
What is a forgery? 58
The use of antiquities by builders 59
The use of antiquities by landowners 60
The use of antiquities by architects: the Renaissance villa 62

4 Nicola Pisano and Giotto: Founders of Renaissance Classicism 69

Nicola Pisano 69
Giotto 72

5 The Early Renaissance 75

Sculpture and civic pride 73
Ghiberti 76
Donatello 77
Masaccio 82
Piero della Francesca 84
Mantegna 85

6 The High Renaissance 89

Leonardo da Vinci 89
Raphael 93
Michelangelo 110
Titian and Roman classicism 119
Classicism and mannerism: the growth of academies 121

7 Classicism in Italian Architecture 123

Brunelleschi 123
The centrally planned church: a Renaissance ideal 125

Alberti, architect and scholar 128
Leonardo and Bramante: the High Renaissance in architecture 134
Mannerism 140
Palladio 144

8 The Classical Revival in Seventeenth-Century Italy 149

The Carracci 149
Classicism and Baroque 154
Eclecticism 158 Caravaggio 159
Carlo Maratta 160

9 Art in Seventeenth-Century France 161

Vouet 161
Philippe de Champaigne 163
Poussin 163
Claude 170
Gaspard Dughet 172
The rise of Paris as the artistic capital of Europe 173
Lebrun and academic classicism in France 173
The Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns 175

10 Architecture in France: Renaissance to Neoclassicism 177

The sixteenth century and Italy
Philibert de l'Orme 178
Salomon de Brosse 181
Francois Mansart 183
Eighteenth-century Neoclassicism 187
Primitivism in architecture 187
A note on British architecture 193

11 Neoclassicism in Painting and Sculpture 197

The Grand Tour 197
Scholarship and Neoclassicism 197
Historicism and the quest for the primitive 199
Neoclassicism and morality 200
Gavin Hamilton: an early neoclassicist 201
Winckelmann and Mengs: the scholar and the artist 202
Neoclassicism in France: the revival of the Academy 204
Diderot and Greuze: the classicism of everyday life 205
David: from Roman to Greek 209
Neoclassical sculpture: Canova 215
Painting in Napoleonic and Restoration France: classicism and modernity 220

12 Ingres and the Subversion of the Classical Tradition 225

Bibliography 225

Index 263